COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL machining is a highly precise process compatible with many materials. The right turn-milling CNC machining components play a huge role in the manufacturing process efficiency and the quality and function of a machined part. However , choosing the right one from the multitude might be challenging.
3-Step Guide for COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL Machining Materials Selection
Precision CNC machining
Before diving into the article, below is a short introduction to the 3-step guide which is most about CNC machinists selecting a material. However, note that this is an introduction and each step will be fully explained in subsequent sections.
·Step 1: Prioritize Your Parts Requirements
Part requirements are the core component of precision CNC machining, and they set the template for the type of material you can use. Common requirements include the part application, i. e., the environment where it will be used, presumed properties such as lightweight, tensile strength, and your budget.
·Step 2: Identify Potential Materials
Prioritizing materials based on the above parts requirement will lead you to identify some materials that can fulfill all or most of them. Make a list of these materials.
·Step 3 : Choose the Most Suitable Material
Choose the most suitable materials by making a compromise between the part requirements. For example, you can choose cost over mechanical performance if your budget is not in range.
Below is an intensive study of parts requirements applicable to any precision CNC machining or 5 axis CNC machining project.
·Step #1 Parts Applications
Ensure the COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL material you use is compatible with the intended software or environment. For instance, let’s compare stainless steel and carbon steel intended to make structural parts used in a marine environment. Both materials are machinable. Nevertheless, stainless steel will be more suitable due to being corrosion resistant. If you look at a normal dry environment, carbon metal would be more appropriate since it is stronger and more durable.
· Part Weight
Make sure the components you are considering have the right weight requested predicated on their program. Bigger doesn’t mean better. For example, Aluminum and other low-density components appeal strongly to the automotive and aerospace industries due to their lightweight and power.
The proper CNC materials will have the necessary houses that aid effective engineering without a loss of function. Therefore, you should consider the component real estate.
Hard alloys and tough plastics such as metal or carbon fiber possess low machinability. Consequently, this will result in low productivity and production performance due to the control of CNC machine cutting speed and feed rates. They can also damage the metallic parts or perhaps require special cutting tools, as in the case of titanium.
There are different measures of strength of metal and plastic, and you should consider the following points when looking for the perfect material to finish your project:
Tensile strength: The resistance of the material to a pulling force
Compression or load-bearing: The resistance of the materials is to a constant load
Elasticity: The power of the materials to return to its original shape after removing the load
Toughness: The ability of the material to resist tearing
Knowing the tolerable strength limited of the parts you want to make, then choose a material that resonates with such limits. Moreover, you can go online to get comprehensive technical information on the strength of different materials or talk to our personnel.
Machinability shows how compatible materials is with the CNC machining process. The right material should be highly machinable, leading to an increase in production effectiveness and a reduction in destroyed CNC parts. Soft metals such as Aluminum, copper, brass, and plastics are extremely machinable material.
Warmth resistance displays the ability in the materials to resist a change in mechanical homes due to a temperature modify. Ensure the components you choose don’t expand or contract irregularly in response to temperature alter.
Corrosion resistance is the ability with the material to resist foreign substances that may cause part failure. Such foreign substances are not limited to water alone. Other examples include oil, grease, and chemical reagents such as acids, salts, and alcohol. Consequently, ensure you check through the material’s technical data sheet to verify its ability to withstand chemical substance exposure.
Material hardness shows the its capability to withstand pinpoint surface loads and determines what materials a COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL machine can cut. Hard components are not suitable for precision CNC machining as they can destroy the components of COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL machines. They also need special cutting procedures. For instance, titanium needs a diamond cutting tool.
Dimensions tolerance may be the permissible limit in the variation of the machine parts for effective functioning. For higher dimensional tolerance, you need highly machinable materials.
Parts made using tight tolerance are easier to assemble. Consequently, they are highly suitable for auto and aeronautics.
Also, every precision CNC equipment has its level of threshold based on the manufacturer. However , the average tolerance is 0. 02mm. If you are unsure , you can view the article about standard tolerance for precision CNC machining.
It is the materials’ overall ability to absorb stress. For example, Aluminium has no endurance limit due to its micro-structure. However, its alloys should have an endurance limit of 1/3 of the tensile strength.
Aesthetics isn’t at the forefront of the requirement when selecting a CNC materials. However , you might need to consider it is for certain products, especially consumer ones.
Physical appearance can be in terms of the smoothness and color of the final component. Metals usually have a smooth surface finish, although they have a limited range of color. Plastic components come in different colors.
Material cost is usually an important part of CNC material selection because CNC engineering is definitely a subtractive procedure, As a result, the spending of project budget is the major factor in materials selection. Ensure that you choose a material with the desired properties within the range of expenditure.
Step #2: Determine Candidate COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL Machining Materials
Turn-Milling CNC machining engine parts
Using the part requirements highlighted above, you should be able to make a summary of compatible materials pertaining to assemble your project. Three types of components will be ideal for CNC machining: precious metals, plastics, and others. This section based on the three types, their properties, and their application.
· Metal Precision CNC Machining Materials
Metals are common COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL milling materials with unique houses. There can be a wide range of metals appropriate for the process. Below are the well-known options, their real estate, and applications
– Light weight aluminum
aluminum precision CNC product
Aluminium alloys generally possess a good strength-to-weight ratio, thermal and electrical conductivity, and corrosion level of resistance. Nevertheless , the level of these types of properties depends on the kind of Light weight aluminum alloy. For instance, the 6061 vs . 7075 aluminum comparison shows that aluminum 6061 offers lower corrosion resistance. There are also additional comparisons of aluminum alloys showing the diversity in the material’s properties.
Lightweight aluminum alloys are applicable in the automotive and airline industry for making parts such as frames and high-performance recreational equipment
items made with metal material
Brass can be an alloy of zinc and copper. Unlike bronze and copper mineral, it is a cost-effective materials with a low coefficient of friction, high chemical resistance, and low power. It is extremely machinable because of its softness. As a result, brass is applicable in making parts found in the medical market (surgical equipment ), engineering, and music sector (strings).
– Stainless Steel
stainless computer numerical control parts
Stainless steel alloys happen to be resistant to corrosion, distortion, and wear. Most stainless-steel metals could be heat treated except for the 303 stainless sheets of steel used to make nuts, bolts, shafts, and gears. Another common metal may be the 304 stainless steel, known for its high machinability, corrosion-resistant, and weldability.
Stainless steel is generally applicable inside the medical industry to make surgical tools and automotive and aeronautic industries.
steel CNC portion
Steel alloys have large formability, weldability, and machinability. Nevertheless, the degree of these homes depends upon the alloy. Steel is suitable for making components that require strong welds, such as gears and shafts.